Golden Horde of Mongolia
In 1225, when Genghis Khan divided the conquered lands among his many children and siblings, Jochi, as the eldest son, was allotted the territory south of Khorezm (in today’s Uzbekistan), west of the Irtysh River. In 1235, by order of Ogedei Khan, Batu Khan, the second son of Jochi Khan, greatly expanded his father’s territory.
Then Golden Horde was officially founded by Batu, son of Jochi, in 1242. The Golden Horde included the Volga region, mountains of Ural, the steppes of the northern Black Sea, Fore-Caucasus, Western Siberia, Aral Sea and Irtysh basin at its peak time.
Among all Mongol khanates, the Golden Horde existed the longest for 250 years and built more than 150 beautiful luxury cities, provided free and peaceful access from the Pacific to the Mediterranean, and pursued state and monetary policies.
The capital was initially Sarai Batu and later Sarai Berke. This extensive empire weakened under rivalry of the descendants of Batu and split into Khanate of Kazan, Astrakhan Khanate, Crimean Khanate, Siberia Khanate, Great Horde, Nogai Horde and White Horde during the 15th century. A unified Russia conquered Khanate of Kazan in 1552, Astrakhan Khanate in 1556, Siberia Khanate in 1582, and the Russian Empire conquered Crimean Khanate in 1783.