Mongolian History

The Difference Between Inner Mongolia and Mongolia

Inner Mongolia vs Outer Mongolia

The Difference Between Inner Mongolia and Mongolia

Inner Mongolia is actually part of China whereas (Outer) Mongolia refers to the actual country of Mongolia.
Inner Mongolians and Mongolians used to be one nation.  Unfortunately, due to historical events and their lack of political power at the time, they could not stay together as one nation.

The main differences of Mongolia and Inner Mongolia:


  • Country name: Mongolia
  • Official language: Mongolian
  • Population: 3,270,785(May 12, 2020)
  • Script: Cyrillic and Traditional Vertical script
  • The population density: 2 per Km2(5 people per mi2).
  • Capital city: Ulaanbaatar (1,584,358 people live in the city, 2020)
  • Major Religions: Buddhism 


  • Country name: Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region
  • Official language: Mongolian and Mandarin
  • Population: 5,000,000(2019)
  • Script: Traditional Vertical script and Chinese script
  • Capital city: Hoh hot
  • Major Religions: Buddhism 

Here are some explanations why there are 2 Mongolia (Inner and Outer) dates back early time:

Mongolian scholars prove that Nomadic tribes had been inhabiting in today’s Inner Mongolian territory from ancient time.
In 1271, Kublai Khan, the grandson of Genghis Khan established the Yuan dynasty. Kublai Khan’s summer capital Shangdu (aka Xanadu) was officially located near present-day Dolonnuur. After the Yuan dynasty was overthrown by the Han-led Ming dynasty in 1368, the Ming captured parts of Inner Mongolia including Shangdu and Yingchang.

The Ming rebuilt the Great Wall of China at its present location, which roughly follows the southern border of the modern Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region.  Soon after the Tumu incident in 1449, when the Mongolian Oirat ruler Esen taishi captured the Chinese emperor, Mongols’ noblemen and its court were  resettling to Inner Mongolia. Thus from then on until 1635, Inner Mongolia was the political and cultural center of the Mongols during the Northern Yuan dynasty.

When Manchu two hundred years’ domination ends, newly independent Republic of China considered Inner Mongolia is part of China, in 1913-1914, the Mongolian government which led by Bogd Khaan sent troops to drive the Republic of China’s troops out of Inner Mongolia. But it was failed due to lack of troop force which was promised by Russia.
Mongolia’s plan to free Inner Mongolia from China was rejected by the 1915 trilateral agreement between Mongolia, Russia and China.


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