The history of the Great Mongols in India is an indisputable branch of the great history of the Mongol nation. Moghul dynasty ruled most of northern India from the early 16th to the mid-18th century.
Founder of the Mughal dynasty:
It is confirmed by historians that Babur was a descendant of the Tsagadai dynasty of Moghulistan and the descendants of Tumur Khan, who lived in Central Asia in the 14th and 16th centuries.
Satish Chandra, Vice President of the University of Delhi, is one of the leading scholars on medieval Indian history. In the book titled “Medieval India: From Sultanat to the Mughals” and “Mughal Empire (1526-1748)”, Satish Chandra indicated that the origin of the Great Mongols in India is the descendants of Tumur of Barlas and Genghis Khan’s sons, the Chaghadai.
Babur wrote very clearly in his autobiography that his father, Omar Sheikh Mirza, the ruler of Fergana, was the fourth generation of Dogolon Tumur Khan, and his mother, Khutlug Khatan, was the daughter of Unus, the remnant of the Chagatai state.
Peak time of the Mughal dynasty:
Under Akbar the Great, the empire grew considerably, and continued to expand until the end of Aurangzeb’s rule. Jahangir, the son of Akbar, ruled the empire between 1605 and 1627. When Shah Jahan, Jehangir’s son, became emperor in October 1627, the empire was large and wealthy enough to be considered one of the greatest empires in the world at that time. It was Shah Jahan who commissioned the building that represents the pinnacle of Mughal architectural achievement, the Taj Mahal, between 1630 and 1653.
Decline of Mughal dynasty
After ruling successfully for 3 centuries, in the last decade of the 17th century and during the reign of Muḥammad Shah (1719–48), the empire began to decline and Mughal ruled only a small area around Delhi, which passed under Maratha (1785) and then British (1803) control. The last Mughal, Bahādur Shah II (reigned 1837–57), was exiled to Yangon, Myanmar (Burma) by the British.