Mongolian Folk Art
National and folk art of a nation is the greatest representation of their unique culture and tradition. In a way, it is the protector of national security and ethnicity as a whole, so folk art is something that should be greatly protected. Lack of work and effort to pass down this knowledge to the next generation is the reason why traditional art is in danger of being forgotten.
Mongolian Long Song
The long song is one of the central elements of the traditional music of Mongolia. Depending on the rhythm of the music and lyrics, long song has short and long types. These further separated into folk song, folk short song and duet. The long song is called as such not because its duration is long, but for its long notes when singing. The long song is one of the central elements of the traditional music of Mongolia. This genre is called “Long song” not only because the songs are long, but also because each syllable of text is extended for a long duration. A four-minute song may only consist of ten words. UNESCO declared the Mongolian Long Song one of the Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity in 2005. It is wrong to assume long song is special because one word is sung for so long, it is unique because different high and deep notes are reached when singing that single word. Folk short song is easier to sing because the music flow is faster. Duet song is like talking to someone, interact with each other. Mainly used in plays.
A folk instrument is a musical instrument that developed between common people and usually does not have a known inventor. It can be made from wood, metal or other material. Such an instrument is played in performances of folk music. Mongolian musical instruments are separated into Plucked, Bowed, Struck, Wind types
Plucked music instruments – Shanz, Shudraga – a plucked three string instrument, widespread across Asia. In Japan known as Shamisen, in China as Sanxian, and in traditional Mongolian Shudarga.
Struck music instrument – Yochin – hammered dulcimer of varying strings struck using two bamboo sticks
Bowed music instrument – Morin Khuur, Shanagan khuur, Khuuchir
Wind music instrument – Ever clarinet or horn, clarinet, flute, tsuur or end blown flute, tsagaan clarinet or seashells, yamaan clarinet, great clarinet
Percussion instrument – drums, bell drums, gongs, handheld small drums and so on.
Biyelgee dance is a unique form of dance, originated from the nomadic way of life. Biyelgee dances embody and originate from the nomadic way of life and are performed while half sitting or cross-legged. Hand, shoulder and leg movements express aspects of Mongol herders everyday lifestyle, such as milking the cow, cooking, hunting, household labor, customs and traditions, etc. as well as spiritual characteristics tied to different ethnic groups. In Biyelgee, music plays an important part in the choreographic art of the Mongols. Many of the folk dances are performed to the accompaniment of the Morin Khuur, ikhel, sometimes in combination with other instruments. There are also dances which are performed exclusively to the accompaniment of the human voice, for example, the Buryat dance Yohor.
Khuumii or Throat singing
Mongolian throat singing is one particular variant of overtone singing practiced by people in Mongolia, Inner Mongolia, Tuva and Siberia. In 2009, it was inscribed on the Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity of UNESCO, under the name Mongolian art of singing, Khoomei. In Mongolian throat singing, the performer produces a fundamental pitch and simultaneously one or more pitches over that. The history of Mongolian throat singing reaches far back.