Shamanism in Mongolia
Shamanism in Mongolia: Shaman is the general term of this shamanism. There are two types of shaman including Lineal and emerged. A shaman is called “messenger or intercessors”. A spirit speaks through this intercessors, and the shaman’s helper is called Tushee or interpreter. Lineal shaman receives the spirits of his or her ancestral spirits and becomes a shaman, whereas emerged shaman is someone who received another spirit and became a shaman. They communicate with the spirit world through their mind and spirit. In other words, a form of different force is moving and speaking through their body. A shaman is a man or woman who can feel and receive this force. Shamanism is separated into black and white spirits. Spirits of black shaman are the fierce spirits of south.
Spirits of white shaman use their wits above force. Male shaman is called Zairan and female shaman is called Udgan. In shamanism, land is considered female and sky is male. When a person dies, his or her spirit goes to the sky and the body is absorbed into the earth. So the sky is Father, lord of the soul and land is Mother of the physical body. Mongolian shamanism is centered on the worship of the highest Tenger or the sky. It watches over the soil, water, plants, animals and nature. Spirits of our ancestors go to the sky. The highest group in the pantheon consisted of 99 tengeri (55 of them benevolent or “white” and 44 terrifying or “black”).
Shaman clothing and equipment:
- Deel: It is considered the armour of the shaman and protects the wearer from bad spirits during rituals
- Hat: It is considered the head of the spirit speaking through messenger. It consists of face cover, feather and engraved eyes and ears.
- Boots: It is the feet of the spirit coming into the body of the messenger. It is usually made from the leather of buck.
- Drum: It is considered the ride of the messenger. Depending on which animal skin was used to craft the drum, that animal becomes the ride for the messenger to visit the other spirit plains and bring the spirit to his or her body.
- Drumstick: It is the whip of the messenger’s ride
- Jaw harp: It is the instrument of the shaman, used to soothe the spirits and call for one
- Mirror: It is a copper or bronze plate the shaman wears. Used to protect the wearer from curses and evil spirits.