The first ever railway in Mongolia was established in 1938. A 43 kilometer railway from Ulaanbaatar to Nalaikh built to transport coal from the Nalaikh coal mine. In 1946, an agreement was made between Soviet Union and Mongolia to establish joint venture railroad. In the framework of this agreement, additional 400 kilometer railroad from Naushki (Russian port city) to Ulaanbaatar was built in 1949 and another 700 kilometer railroad from Ulaanbaatar (Mongolian port city bordering with China) to Zamiin-Uud finished building in 1955.
The new Trans-Mongolian railroad connected its two neighbors, Russia and China, so the railway was in need of staff and engineers. To accommodate for this, Railroad College Industrial Complex was established in 1951 and in 1953, Railroad Technical School was operational. From 1952 to 1957, over 3500 people graduated from these schools. Opening ceremony for the Ulaanbaatar- Zamiin Uud railway was held on 31st of December ,1955.
With a humble beginning of handful of stations from Industry district to Nalaikh District, practically within the city limits, Mongolian railway has become Trans-Mongolian railway with 78 stations, spanning over 1950 kilometers, within 80 years of its history. Ulaanbaatar station is the biggest station of this international railway. Mongolian railway has a total of 1200 kilometer railroad, excluding the intersections and is part of the Trans-Siberian railroad system. Nowadays, Mongolian Railways transport around 3.5 million people and around 18.8 million ton of cargo every year.