Mongolian Yuan Dynasty
Upon the death of his brother Munkh Khaan in 1259, Kublai Khan succeeded him in 1260. However there a civil war subsequently broke out between Kubilai and Ariq Boke (his little brother) for the leadership of the Empire. They fought a series of battles and Kublai won. Then Yuan dynasty was established by Kublai Khan in 1271.
The land of Great Yuan stretched from the Pacific Ocean to the Ural Mountains, from Siberia to Afghanistan, whole dynasty ruled over one fifth of the world’s dry land. Yuan dynasty sent large armies against the Song people in the 1270s. In 1276, the Mongols captured the Song capital of Hangzhou and most of the Song Dynasty clan in 1276.
Kublai succeeded in building a powerful empire during this period and the “four great inventions” in science and technology in ancient times, papermaking, printing, the compass and gunpowder were further developed, and introduced to foreign countries, making great contributions to world civilization. The record of the Mongols lists 20,166 public schools created during Kublai’s reign.
Having achieved real or nominal dominion over much of Eurasia, and having successfully conquered China, Kublai was in a position to look beyond China. However, Kublai’s costly invasions of Vietnam (1258), Sakhalin (1264), Burma (1277), Champa (1282), and Vietnam again (1285) secured only the vassal status of those countries. Mongol invasions of Japan (1274 and 1280), the third invasion of Vietnam (1287–8), and the invasion of Java (1293) failed.
It was the first non-Han Chinese dynasty to rule all of China. The Yuan dynasty lasted from 1271 until 1368 when the Ming dynasty defeated the Yuan forces. Following that, Mongol rulers retreated to their Mongolian homeland and continued to rule as the Northern Yuan dynasty.