Mongolia during the Socialist regime
Mongolia became 2nd communist country after Soviet Union in 1924 until 1992. That time Mongolia was ruled by the sole Mongolian People’s Revolutionary Party. Although, Mongolia has developed under the influence of the Soviet Union politically and economically.
Mongolia has undergone significant cultural, scientific and technological changes during the socialist era. Then large-scale movements such as the Cultural Revolution, the Collective Movement, and the Atar Campaign took place throughout the country. It has brought about drastic changes in our country’s population, culture, lifestyle, economic structure and system.
In 1939, Choibalsan Khorloo became the leader. Under Soviet pressure, he confiscated private property, restricted religion, and arbitrarily arrested and repressed some citizens. The Great Repression, which began in 1937, executed more than 30,000 people.
The People’s Republic of Mongolia sent aid to the Soviet Union during World War II, and in the 1939 Khalkha River War, a joint Soviet-Mongolian force defeated the Japanese army. During the 1945 war of liberation, Mongolia sought to unify Inner Mongolia but failed. In 1945, Joseph Stalin and Chiang Kai-shek formed an alliance against Japan, at which time the People’s Republic of China recognized outer Mongolia’s independence.
On January 26, 1952, Choibalsan of Horloo died in Moscow, and power passed to Yumjaa’s Tsedenbald. Since then, there has been relative calm. In 1961, Mongolia became a member of the United Nations.
At the same time, in the 1960s, relations between the USSR and China broke down and Mongolia became a party to the Soviet Union. As a result, the Soviet Union’s influence more increased in Mongolia. Mongolia’s economy grew rapidly in the 1960s, making it the first country in Asia to become universally literate. In 1984, during a visit to Moscow, Tsedenbal was overthrown and Jambyn Batmunkh was elected as a Mongolian Last Communist leader which resigned in 1990.